Friday, May 22, 2009

Time and place always noted carefully by Orthodox Hindus

It is admitted on all hands nowadays that in the entire range of world’s literature the Vedas of the Hindus are the most ancient. And the Vedas form the basis for the various daily activities prescribed for and performed by the Bharatiyas from the time of their rising from bed-cons in the morning to the time of their going to bed in the night. From the procedure of brushing the teeth all the daily physical and intellectual activities of the human being are laid down in the form of sacred duties in the Vedas. Even to this day the conduct of the orthodox among the Indians is regulated by the Vedic injunctions. For the due performance of these Vedic rites time and place are of importance and have to be carefully fixed and noted. The prescribed rites have to be performed at the times prescribed exactly without any discrepancy even to the very minute and second. Time is fixed accurately with reference to the movements and relative positions of the Sun, Moon, the Planets and Stars and the activities of the orthodox Hindus, who observe the traditional ritual are still regulated by the time thus determined, even to this day. Almanacs are prepared every year for the purpose, on the basis of their highly developed and perfected astronomical science and these are available to the common people. It is the custom of the country to keep the almanac in every Hindu household. With its help every one knows the date (the phase of Moon), the day of the weeks, the star associated with the Moon, Yoga and karana and is enabled to perform the rites prescribed for him, his religious injunctions. Besides, these contain details of the movements of the different planets and their positions from time to time. the fixing of the present time in the flow of time from the beginning of the month. the year, the yuga, the Manvanthara, the kalpa, the beginning of creation itself. According to these almanacs, which show a remarkable uniformity in these matters from time to time and province to province throughout the country,
1. the present time 1952 A.D. is the year 5053 of the kali Yuga.
2. the time elapsed since the beginning of the Manvanthara of Vaivaswatha Manu the seventh Manu is 12,05,33,053 years.
3. The time elapsed since the beginning of the 28th Mahayuga is 38,93,053 years,
4. In the 28th Mahayuga. of the present kaliyuga the time elapsed is 5053 years. So 1952 A.D is equivalent to kali 5053. Hence the first year of the Kali Era comes in 3101 B. C. Even the scholars of the west (the orientalists) of modern times all recognise that the kali Era of the Hindu system of reckoning time began at 2-27’-30" hours on the 20th of February 3102 B.C., the first year of the kali Era is 3101 B.C., that in the year Kali 26 on the first day of the year,i.e. in 3076 B.C., the victors in the Mahabharata war, the Pandavas, Yudhishtira and his brothers ascended to heaven. that on that day the constellation of stars familiarly known as Saptarshi Mandala left the region of Magha and entered the region of the next star and from that time commenced the Saptarshi Era or the Yudhishtira kala Era. This Era is known in Kashmir as the Kashmirabda even to this day and it figures in their almanacs from year to year, even according to Dr. Buhler. (Vide indian Eras ‘in English’ by this author(pandit Kota Venkata Chelam) ).

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Max Muller - On relative reliability and regard for truth of oriental scholars

Of the relative reliability and regard for truth, so essential a qualification for purposes of history, of oriental scholars, the writers of our Puranas and ancient books, on
one hand and the western scholars engaged in historical research and controversy on the other hand, a fair estimate is available to us in the words of Prof. Max··Muller, himself,
a well-known western scholar who interested himself in the ancient literature and religion of our country.
Prof. "Max Muller" in his book "'India; what can it teach us" P. 63 writes thus:—
"During the last twenty years however, I have had some excellent opportunities of watching a number of native scholars under circumstances where it is not difficult to detect a man‘s character, I mean in literary work, and, more particularly, in literary controversy. I have watched them carrying on such controversies both among themselves and with
certain European scholars, and I feel bound to say that, with hardly one exception they have displayed a far greater respect for truth, and a far more manly and generous spirit than we are accustomed to even in Europe and America. They have shown strength, but no rudeness; nay, I know that nothing has surprised them as much as the coarse invective to which certain sanskrit scholars have condescended, rudeness of speech being, according to their view of human nature, a safe sign not only of bad breeding but of want of knwoledge. When they were wrong they have readily admitted their mistake; when they were right they have never sneered at their European adversaries. There has been, with few exceptions, no quibbling, no special pleading, no untruthfulness on their part, and certainly none of that low cunning of the scholar who writes down and publishes what he knows perfectly well to be false, and snaps his fingers at those who still value truth and self respect more highly than victory or applause at any price,"
"Let me add that I have been repeatedly told by English merchants that commercial honour stands higher in India than in any other country, and that a dishonoured bill is hardly known there."

Friday, May 8, 2009

Age of Lord Buddha

There is no authoritative text of ancient times declaring definitely and directly the date of Lord Buddha. It belongs to a very ancient time. In the histories and other writings of modern times, the dates ascribed to Buddha are tentative and based on conjectures and imagination.
It is proposed to arrive at the correct date for Lord Buddha, starting with the time of th Mahabharata War in 3138 BC., and reckoning the reigns of the successive dynasties of the kings of Ayodhya (Ikshvaku dynasty) mentioned in the Puranas till we reach the "23rd king Suddhodana" of the Ikshvaku dynasty, the blessed father of "Lord Buddha".
Time of Buddha-Puranic Evidence:
The Mahabharata War...... .. .... ... ... ... ... .... 3138 B.C.
The coronation of Brihadbala’s son Brihakshna,
of Ikshvaku dynasty in the same year,after the war... ... ... 3138 B.C.
The reigns of 30 kings of the dynasty ending with Sumitra... 1504 B.C
The date of coronation of Mahapadmananda of Magadha ... ... 1634 B.C. (3138 B.C.minus 1504 B.C)

Buddha in the History of Ikshvaku Dynasty:
The list of kings of lkshvaku dynasty from 3138 B.C.. to 1634 B·C.
Brihadbala was killed in the Mahabharata war by Abhimanu. His son "Brihadkshana" became king after the war.
1. Brihadkshana, 2. Urn yaksha, 3. Vatsa vyuha,
4. Prativyoma, 5. Divakara, 6. Sahadeve,
7. Brihadasva, 8. Bhanuratha, 9. Pratitasya,
10. Supratika, 11. Marudeva, 12.Sunakshatra,
13. Kinnara, 14. Anadharaksha, 15.Suprana,
16. Amitrajith, 17. Brihadbhaja, 18. Dharmi,
19. Kritanjaya or Dhananjaya, 20. Ranamjaya, 21. Sanjaya,
22. Sakya, 23. Suddhodana, 24. Siddhartha i.e. Buddha,
25. Rahula(Son of Siddhardha), 26. Prasenajit, 27. Kahudraka,
28. Kumdaka, 29. Suratha, 30. Sumitra
These 30 kings reigned for 1504 years.

Even the Buddhist scriptures confirm that Buddha was the son of "Suddhodana".
When the world-honoured (Sakya muni) was about to attain to perfect wisdom, the Devas sang in the sky. "The son of Suddhodana having quitted his family and studied the path (of wisdom) will now in seven days become Buddha". The Pratyeka Buddha heard their words, and immediately attained to Nirvana."
(Record of Buddhist kingdoms by Fa-hien translated by James Leggie, Ed. 1886, Page 94).
It is therefore clear that Buddha was the son of king Suddhodana, the 23rd of the kings of Ikshvaku Dynasty. There will be none to dispute it.
Buddha was the contemporary of Kshemajit, Bimbisara and Ajata Satru, the 31st, the 32nd, and the 33rd kings of Magadha. The Buddhistic works say that Buddha was Seventy-two years old at the time of Ajata—Satru’s coronation. According to the Puranas Ajata-Satru’s coronation was in 1814 B.C.
"When Ajatasatru came to the throne (of Magadha) Gotama (Buddha) was seventy-two years old. but his genius Still shone bright and clear." (The Heritage of India Series_‘Gotama Buddha’ P. 70, by Kenneth T. Saunders, Edition 1922.)
"Buddha left the body in 1807 B,C., at ‘Kusinara’ owing to dysentery resultant upon an undigestable food offered to him by a devotee at the town ‘Pava’. The Buddhistic works
also say that Buddha lived for 80 years.
"Gotama was now seventy-nine years old. He continued his ministry of preaching and teaching, revisiting his favourit haunts." (Ibid.P.75.)

The following table helps to understand the contemporaneity of Buddha with the kings of the Sisunaga dynasty of Magadha.
Kings of Ikshvaku --- --- | Contemporary Magadha
dynasty. --- --- | kings.
19. Rananjaya. --- --- 28. Sisunaga .....B.C. l994--1954
20. Sanjaya. --- ... 29. Kakavarna ....B.C. 1954--1918.
21. Sakya. --- --- 30. Kshema Dharma.B.C. 1918--1892.
22. Suddhodana. --- --- 31. Kshemajit ....B.C. 1892--1852.
23. Siddhardha. ( Birth.) ............ 1887
24. Siddhardha. became Buddha ........ 1852
(During this period } -- --- 32. Bimbisara ....B.C. 1852--1814.
Buddha preached his } -- --- --- 33. Ajatasatru ...B.C. 1814--1787.
Doctrine }

1. Buddha’s brith. 1887 B.C.
2. Buddha's Remunication 1858 B.C.
3. Buddha's Penance 1858--1852 B.C.
4. Buddha's Preaching of the doctrine ... 1852--1807 B.C.

Buddha's total life period 80 years, (From 1887--1807 B.C.).

As regards the names of the contemporary Magadha kings of Buddha there is perfect concord between Buddhistic literature and modern historians.
If we rightly fix the date of the Mahabharata war (3138 B.C.) and go on adding up the periods of the reigns of the successive kings, up to the time of Buddha we come to the 19th century B.C. The western historians arbitrarily fixed the sixth century for Buddha. They have made 322 B. C. the sheet anchor of Indian Chronology, by bringing Chandragupta-Maurya of the sixteenth century B.C., to that date. This Wrong history is taught in our schools and colleges. These very historians carried their researches in the Tibatan, Chinese and Simhalese histories. We do not know what changes are made in the histories of those countries calculated to lend support to their theories.