Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Age of Sri Adi Sankaracharya

Fixing the time of Sri Sankara:
Of the numerous compositions with the title 'Sankara Vijaya’ and describing the exploits of Sri Sankara, the Brihat Sankara Vijaya of Chitsukhacharya is the most famous and authoritative.` The author Chitsukhacharya was associated with Sankara from the age of 5, in his studies at school and when he (Sankara) became a Sanyasi (or monk! in his 10th Year, followed his example. receiving the initiation at his hands and always kept him company thereafter throughout his wenderings and exploits all over the country, survived Sri Sankara for several years and composed his great work 'The Brihat-Sankara—Vijaya’ to immortalise the achivements of his friend and preceptor. The date of the birth of Sri Sankara is specified in this authoritative treatise, This date tallies with the date assigned to the birth of Sri Adi Sankaracharya in the lists of the Acharyas of the various religious establishments known as Sankara Pithas established by Sri Adi Sankara at Dwarka, Kanchi, Puri etc, These lists of the heads of the religious establishments are complete and continuous from the time of the founder Sri Adi Sankara to the present day. These lists are therefore traditional documents of unquestioned authenticity and authority. The date of the birth of Sri Sankara according to these authorities is given by the verse.

"తిష్యే ప్రయాత్య నలసేవధి బాణనేత్రే |
యే నందనే దినమణా వుదగధ్వభాజి |
రాధే దితే రుడువినిర్గతమంగలగ్నే |
స్యాహూతవాన్ శివగురుః సచ శంకరేతి ||

tishyae prayaatya nalasaevadhi baaNanaetrae |
yae naMdanae dinamaNaa vudagadhvabhaaji |
raadhae ditae ruDuvinirgatamangalagnae |
syaahootavaan Sivaguru@h sacha SaMkaraeti ||

तिष्ये प्रयात्य नलसेवधि बाणनेत्रे |
ये नंदने दिनमणा वुदगढ़वभाजी |
राधे दिते रुडुविनिर्गतमन्गलग्ने |
स्याहूतवान सिवगुरुहू सच श्रंकरेति ||
Meaning:···-· Anala=3. Sevadhi = 9, Bana = 5, Netra= 2, which comes to 2593rd year of Kali (or 509 B. C.)

On Sunday, Vaisakha Sukla Panchami in the constellation and Lagna of Dhanus in the year Nandana, a son was born to Sivaguru and he was named ‘Sankara’ by his father in 2593 Kali (which corresponds to 3102-2593=509B.C)
Referring to the extraordinary meeting of Sankara with Kumarila Bhatta (the great expounder of the Karma Kanda of the Vedas) on his funeral pyre, the Jina Vijaya declares: -- "There-upon when 15 years had elapsed from his birth, (in 2608 Kali or 494 B.C,,) Sankara met Bhattacharya (`Kumarila Bhatta) for the first and last time."

Referring to the date of Sankaracharya's Niryana, the Jina Vijaya states:

ఋషి ర్బాణ స్తధా భూమి ర్మర్త్యాక్షౌ వామమేళనాత్|
ఏకత్వేన లభేతాంకం తామ్రాక్షా తత్ర వత్సరః|
RShi rbaaNa stadhaa bhuumi rmartyaakshau vaamamaeLanaat|
eakatveana labheataankam taamraakshaa tatra vatsara@h|

रशी रबान स्ताधा भूमि र्मार्त्याक्षाऊ वामामेलानात |
एअकत्वेअन लभेअतान्कम तामराक्षा तत्र वत्सरः |

"When we calculate the figures Rishi = 7. Bana = 5, Bhumi = 1 and Martyakshau = 2, in the reverse order and reckon the total number of years in the Yudhishtira Saka(of the Jains), we arrive at the year Tamraksha (Raktakshi) as the year of Sankara’s death."
Hence Sankara's Niryana works out to 2157+468 = 2625 Kali or 3102-2625=477 B.C.; (or 2634 B.C. - 2157 =) 477B.C.
(Note I: The Jains and Buddhists use a Yudhishtira era which commences 468 years after Kali i. e. in (3102 B.C.-468=) 2634 B. C.)
The Jinavijaya is a composition by a Jaina. It contains among other things a brief account of the life of Kumarila Bhatta whom the Jains (who condemn the Vedic rituals) held as their bitterest opponent. Therein we find a reference to the meeting of Sankara with Kumarila just before the death of the latter.
There could be no partiality in the writer in favour of his opponents.
Chronology of the Peetadhipaties of Kanchi KamaKoti Peetha, commencing from Adi Sankara (509 B. C)
The Sankaracharya matha established in Kanchipura by Sri Sankara himself, (transferred to Kumbhakonam in the Tanjore District, in the end of the eighteenth century) and presided over from time to time by men of vast learning, great piety and mighty intellect, has continued to be a centre of Hindu culture and religion in these parts. Some of the
occupants of the Kamakoti pitha, are among the most distinguished teachers of Vedanta philosophy and authors of well-known treatises on Advaita-Vedanta. _
The Chronology of the Kamakoti Pitha is of the utmost importance as it gives accurate dates for a number of events in the history of India. Therefore, all information that is dated, and dated accurately, is of immense importance to it. There can be no doubt of the accuracy of the chronology as a whole. The Punya—sloka—manjari gives only the cyclic year, the (lunar) month, Paksha and tithi, sometimes
even the time of the day, decease of the gurus. But here and there. the Kali or Saka year is given, and with the help of these, we can get a complete chronology.

The chronological table of Kamakoti clearly gives the following dates among many:
1. Establishment of Peetha 482 B.C.
2. Sri Sankaracharya, First Acharya, occupied peetha for 6 years, demise: Raktakshi year, Vaisakha month, Sukla-Paksha, 11th day, 476 B.C.

Nepalaraja Vamsavali:
In the Suryavamsi dynasty of Nepal the 18th king was Vrishadeva Varma. He reigned from 2554 Kali to 2615 Kali or 547 B.C., to 486 BC. (Vide “Chronology of Nepal History Reconstructed by this Author.)
It is stated in the Nepalaraja Vamsavli that; "Adi Sankaracharya came from the South and destroyed the Buddha faith." Kali 2614 or 487 B.C. (Vide The Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII p. 411 ff)
Temple of Sankaracharya in Kashmir:
"Gopaditya the 70th king in the list of Kashmir kings (417-357 B.C.) founded Agraharas and built the temples of Jyestheswara and Sankaracharya" (A short history of Kashmir By P. Gwasha Lal, B.A., Ed. 1932; p. 27).
“Sankaraoharya"-—"This shrine is situated in the city of Srinagar. Sankaracharya is an ancient temple crowning the Takht-i-Sulaiman hill and standing 1000 ft. above the valley. The temple and the hill on which it stands take their name from Sankaracharya, the great South Indian Teacher of Monism who came to Kashmir from Travancore. This temple was built by king Gopaditya who reigned in Kashmir from 368 to 308 B.C. It was repaired later by the liberal minded Muslim king Zainul Abdin." (Vide The Hindu dated 17——7·—1949 p. 15, 2nd column and Kali Saka Vijnanam by K. Venkatachalam part III, p. 66). The real time of Gopaditya is 417-357 B.C. `Therefore it is evident that Sri Adi Sankaracharya lived before Gopaditya’s time i. e. Between 509-477 B.C. (This is elaborately discussed in Nepala-Raja·Vamsavali by it author K. Venkatachalam)
Esoteric Buddhism: Mr. A. P. Sinnett in his "Esoteric Buddhism" (VIII Ed· 1903, Ist Ed. being printed in 1883-—pp. 182, 183) assigns the year 503 B.C. or thereabouts for Sankaracharya. This tallies with the date 509 B.C., given in Brihat Sankara Vijaya and Jina Vijaya.

It is clear from the above evidence that Sri Adi Shankaracharya was born in 509 B.C., and passed away in 477 B.C.

Note: The above extract is from The Chronology of Kashmir History Reconstructed by Pandit
Kota Venkata Chelam published in 1955.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Yavanas and Yavana Kingdoms referred in Rajatarangini

Reference to Yavana countries:
To the west of Kashmir there were five Yavana countries. Some of them are now part of Kashmir Empire. These Yavanas were not Greeks but they belonged to the Kshatriya race of India. As these disregarded and neglected the performance of vedic duties and rites they were called Mlechchas. In those Yavana regions lived four castes of people. As all these castes relinquished Vedic rites, their caste-names were merely nominal. Among the people of the Yona kingdoms Rajatarangini relates that there were castes called Yona Brahmins, Yona Kshatriyas, Yona Vaisyas and
Yona Sudras.
Yona or Yavana Kingdoms:
1. Abhisara, 2. Uraga (Urasa), 3. SimhaPura (Singapura)
4, Divya Kataka (Deva Kataka or Kataka ), 5, Uttara
(Vide the Map of western India in post 'The Empire of Kashmir').
"Abhisara" consisted of two regions namely "‘Darva" and "Abhisara." The kings of these Yavana regions were Kshatriyas who became Mlechchas, were subordinate and paid tribute to Kashmir Kings. We find in Rajatarangini many instances, when these Yavana rulers revolted and became independent and the Kashmir monarchs subdued the rebels and brought them again under their sovereignty. Some of these five regions are part of Kashmir and others are on the western border. In the list of the Kashmir Kings, during the reign of 130th ruler, Kalasa Maha Raja, there was the description of Yona Brahmin as follows,

"There was a Brahmin born in the Yona Village who begged alms of paddy. His name was "Loshtaka" and he was considered to be an Astrologer of that village." So says Rajatrangjni. From this, it is evident that the Kshatriyas residing in the Yona regions, on the borders of Kashmir, though they were firstly Kshatriyas, were treated as Mlechchas, on account of their disregarding their vedic duties; the other caste people also were called Mlechchas. Therefore, Rajatarangini relates that there were caste differences even among the Mlechchas. The yona Brahmins were experts in Astrology. The ‘Yavana. Rishi', the author of "Yavana Siddhanta", was a ‘Bharatiya Yavana Brahmin’, but not a Greek. The territory "Ionia" which got that name, on account of its conquest by the Yavanas of india, was later called Greece from its contact with the savage Greek tribes. The Bharata Yavanas were of a very ancient origin. They took the sciences of Astrology and others, on their migration to ‘Ionia’(modern Greece) from India, but India borrowed nothing from Greece. On the otherhand. the western writers turned matters topsy-turvy and proclaimed that all the arts and sciences flowed from Greece to India. The histories containing this inverted information were introduced as Text-Books and our children were taught these packs of lies in the schools and colleges. As the students were manufactured to be disciples of the Greeks, as a result, they cultivated a love for Greek lore and learning and developed a hate for Bharatiya knowledge and wisdom. Until and unless correct and true history of Bharat is written and these authentic books are prescribed as Texts for study in the schools and Colleges, these wrong and baneful notions cannot be torpedoed and the minds of future generations of young men cannot be diverted from the tinsel glamour of west to the true glory of the East, the hearth and home of culture and civilisation from time immemorial.

In praise of Hindu thought and astronomy

Jean-Sylvain Baily (1736–93): 18th century French astronomer and politician. His works on astronomy and on the history of science (notably the Essai sur la théorie des satellites de Jupiter) were distinguished both for scientific interest and literary elegance and earned him membership in the French Academy, the Academy of Sciences, and the Academy of Inscriptions.
Bailly said: "The movement of stars which was calculated by Hindus 4,500 years ago, does not differ even by a minute from the tables which we are using today." And he concludes: "The Hindu systems of astronomy are much more ancient than those of the Egyptians - even the Jews derived from the Hindus their knowledge.

Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace ( 1749-1827): French mathematician, philosopher, and astronomer, a contemporary of Napoleon. Laplace is best known for his nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system.
Laplace wrote:"Nevertheless the ancient reputation of the Indians does not permit us to doubt that they have always cultivated astronomy, and the remarkable exactness of the mean motions which they assign to the Sun and the Moon necessarily required very ancient observation.

Carl Sagan, in his book, Cosmos asserts that the Dance of Nataraja (Tandava) signifies the cycle of evolution and destruction of the cosmic universe (Big Bang Theory): "It is the clearest image of the activity of God which any art or religion can boast of." Modern physics has shown that the rhythm of creation and destruction is not only manifest in the turn of the seasons and in the birth and death of all living creatures, but also the very essence of inorganic matter.
For modern physicists, then, Shiva's dance is the dance of subatomic matter. Hundreds of years ago, Indian artist created visual images of dancing Shiva's in a beautiful series of bronzes. Today, physicist have used the most advanced technology to portray the pattern of the cosmic dance. Thus, the metaphor of the cosmic dance unifies, ancient religious art and modern physics. The Hindus, according to Monier-Williams, were Spinozists more than 2,000 years before the advent of Spinoza, and Darwinians many centuries before Darwin and Evolutionists many centuries before the doctrine of Evolution was accepted by scientists of the present age.
"The Hindu religion is the only one of the world's great faiths dedicated to the idea that the Cosmos itself undergoes an immense, indeed an infinite, number of deaths and rebirths. It is the only religion in which the time scales correspond, to those of modern scientific cosmology. Its cycles run from our ordinary day and night to a day and night of Brahma, 8.64 billion years long. Longer than the age of the Earth or the Sun and about half the time since the Big Bang. And there are much longer time scales still."


Sunday, April 26, 2009

The Empire of Kashmir

Map shows:

UTTARAPATHA oAncient North-West Bharat

(Ref: Pandit Chelam's book Chronology of Kashmir History Reconstructed, which can be downloaded in pdf form from

Kashmir was not a small state but an empire having many small states as feudatories and their rulers were paying tribute to their over-lord. There were twenty-two petty regions-under its sway: 

1. Darva;  
2. Abhisara : 

Though these two were comprised in Kashmir, they had independent rulers who were subordinate to the king of Kashmir. These were inhabited by people called Yavana Kshatriyas. 

3.Urasa or Uraga: This is also part of Kashmir having an independent ruler, subordinate to the king of Kashmir. This region also was inhabited by Mlechchas termed Yavanas. 

4. Kambhoja; its capital was Rajapura and was in the Southern part of Kashmir. This region had an independent ruler and was subordinate to the king of Kashmir. 

5.Trigarta: This was a feudatory  state to Kashmir.

6. Lohar: This was subordinate to Kashmir king. 

7. Dhekkan territory: This was a region consisting of three Yavana Kshatriya states called Simhapura, Divyakataka, Uttara Jyotisha.  Its capital was Udabhandapura.  The people living in these tracts were Yavana Kshatriyas and the other three castes.  These extended from
North to South, in three-fourths region of present Afghanistan.  The descendents of Lallya Sahi or Hindu Sahi Dynasty conquered and reigned over this territory from 850 A.D. onwards.  This was also sub-ordinate to the king of Kashmir.

8. Phalguna Dvara Region.

9. Krama Desa. 

10. Champakapura.

11. Gada Desa. 

12. Kastavata Rashtra. 

13. Nilapura  Rashtra.

14. Vallapura Rashtra. 

15. Dhakka Desa. 

16. Lata Desa 

17. Gurjara Rashtra. 

18. Lonamaka Rashtra. 

19. Madava Rashtra. 

20. Karala Rashtra. 

21. Yavana Rashtra. 

22. Kampana Rashtra. 

The states from 8 to 22 were round about the Kashmir Empire and "Rajatarangini" relates that the rulers of those states paid tribute to the kings of Kashmir.  Darada, Turushka (which are in present Russian Turkistan) and Gandhara Desa were often conquered by Kashmir kings and again used to declare independence. 

The states 1, 2, 3, and 7 were Kshatriya kingdoms of the Yavana sect, Rajataragini mentions that besides these, the 21st also went by the name of Yavana country. In the seventh a number
of states were comprised such as Simhapura. Divya Kataka and Uttara Jyotisha. which were Yavana regions. In olden days these three states were under independent kings. It appears that the Brahma-Kshatriya king by name Lalliya conquered these three states and consolidated them into Dhekkan territory. Therefore, Kashmir was a small Empire comprising of these petty states.

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Genetic studies prove Kota Venkata Chalam's history

Pandit Chalam's conclusions about Indian History, arrived before 1950 are supported by the recent Genetic Studies between 1990 and 2006.

None of the nine major genetic or DNA studies in India between 1990 and 2006 lends any support to Aryan Invasion. The overall picture emerging from these studies in India between 1990 and 2006 is, first, an unequivocal rejection of a 3500-BP arrival of a “Caucasoid” or Central Asian gene pool. Just as the imaginary Aryan invasion / migration left no trace in Indian literature, in the archaeological and the anthropological record, it is invisible at the genetic level. The agreement between these different fields is remarkable by any standard, and offers hope for a grand synthesis in the near future, which will also integrate agriculture and linguistics.

Secondly, they account for India’s considerable genetic diversity by using a time-
scale not of a few millennia, but of 40,000 or 50,000 years. In fact, several experts, have in the last few years proposed that when Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa, he first reached South-West Asia around 75,000 BP, and from here, went on to other parts of the world. In simple terms, except for Africans, all humans have ancestors in the North-West of the Indian peninsula. In particular, one migration started around 50,000 BP towards the Middle East and Western Europe: “indeed, nearly all Europeans — and by extension, many Americans — can trace their ancestors to only four mtDNA lines, which appeared between 10,000 and 50,000 years ago and originated from South Asia.”

1. The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system-- FREE to download from
2. GENETICS AND THE ARYAN DEBATE , Michel Danino,(Published in Puratattva,
Bulletin of the Indian Archaeological Society, New Delhi, No. 36, 2005-06, pp. 146-154.)
3. Journey of Mankind ,

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

An appeal to Young Indologists

The history of India, particularly of the ancient period, as it is found in the Text Books of schools and colleges and in the writings of research scholars of Indology, requires thorough revision. European scholars, who attempted to construct our history, seriously erred in chronology.

1. The false assumption that the Aryans came from outside India and the wrong identification of Chandra-Gupta-Maurya of 1534 B.C, with another Chandra-Gupta, the contemporary of Alexander(326 B.C.), led to several errors in chronology and other aspects of our history.

2. The Puranas, which are a storehouse of historical information, were discredited as mere fiction. Several facts from the Puranas that do credit to our history and culture are entirely omitted in the historical writings of Europeans and their Indian followers.

3. Some Indologists went to the length of interpolating in and otherwise tampering with the writings of ancient foreign visitors of India and with the Buddhist literature

4. Many ancient inscriptions like the Kumbhalghar Inscription (V.S.1537) were destroyed.

5. The genuine Inscription of Janamejaya ( Indian Antiquity pp333,334) dated Kali 89 or 3012 B.C. has been rejected as being spurious. Several other important ancient inscriptions between 4148 B>C. And 300 B.C., were destroyed.

6. Some coins and inscriptions have been misread, mis-interpreted, misapplied and misrepresented and some are forged so as to be used for supporting the modern theories.

7. The Aihole inscription and others that establish correctly the date of the Mahabharata War, 3138 B.C., have been neglected.

8. Some important dates which are supposed to be the Anchor Sheets of Ancient Indian chronology have been arbitrarily determined, with no regard for or reference to ancient literature.

All this was to show that the historical literature of Bharat was unreliable as a document of history.

Although later researches by Indian Savants have brought to light several facts, the writings of these savants are not accepted by prominent Indologists for the simple reason that these writings do not fall in line with their modern theories. It is strange to expect that scholars that are bent upon showing the errors in the modern historians in the field should fall in line with the same writers. The interests of truth will heavily suffer if this attitude towards fresh research scholars of Indian history continues.

For about forty years I have been working in the field of historical research studying both Indigenous and modern histories and inscriptions etc., and during the last 9 years I have published genuine Historical facts in 24 books, some in Telugu and some in English running into 3000 pages. I have been sending my publications to research scholars and other prominent persons interested in the subject. Although the bulk of the scholars are too conservative even to examine my writings, some of them have accepted that my writings give a lead to the attempts for constructing a genuine history of Bharat. I am happy to note that there is a wide-spread desire in our country today, that our history should be rewritten so as to be nearer the truth.

I have done, through my writings, what I could towards the achievement of the legitimate wish of our people. I appeal to the younger generation to pursue the subject and do justice to the great culture and history of our country.

I have labored, long enough and am retiring in my 72nd year. I assure my young friends that as they proceed with the subject they will find in our ancient literature, inscriptions and coins, wonderful material that will enable them to construct history of our mother-land from 3138 B.C.. Beware of forged inscriptions etc.

This Ancient Hindu History consisting of two parts is the last of my works. In the first part of this book I have traced the dynasties of kings from 3138 B.C., the date of the Mahabharata War, to 1193 A.D., and I have also given historical accounts of these dynasties. This information is quite in accordance with the puranic accounts and genuine inscriptions. In this second part, I have proved that the genuine history of Bharat is to be found in the vast Sanscrit literature, that the so-called archaeological evidence cited by modern historians is full of misleadings, misrepresentations and misapplications and that this evidence besides being so very faulty has failed to help a correct reconstruction of ancient Hindu Chronology and has always tended to horribly curtail it.

My good wishes to all those interested in bringing the genuine history of our Bharat.

Kota Venkata Chelam



కోట వెంకటా చలం గారి తెలుగు గ్రంధములు

౧. బ్రహ్మాండ సృష్టి విజ్ఞానము
౨. కలిశకవిజ్ఞ్యానము, ౧వ భాగము ( జ్యోతిస్సిద్ధాంతుల కాలనిర్ణయము)
౩. కలిశకవిజ్ఞ్యానము, ౨వ భాగము ( కలిరాజ వంశావళి)
౪. కలిశకవిజ్ఞ్యానము, ౩వ భాగము ( కలిరాజ వంశావళి శేషం)
౫. భారతీయ శకములు
౬. ఆర్యుల ధృవనివాస ఖండనము
౭. అశోకుని కాలము
౮. అగ్ని వంశపు రాజులు
౯. గుప్త రాజులెవరు?
౧౦. కలియుగ రాజవంశములు
౧౧. ఆంధ్రుల పుట్టు పూర్వోత్తరములు & జంబూద్వీపము
౧౨. నిర్విచార జీవనము
౧౩. అద్వైత బోధిని
(తెలుగువ్రాత లేఖిని.ఓఆర్జి యొక్క సహాయముతో)

Sunday, April 19, 2009

Pandit Chelam's books in English

1. Manava Srishti Vignanam or
The Genesis of the Human Race
2. The plot in Indian Chronology
3. Chronology of Nepal History Reconstructed
4. Chronology of Kashmir History Reconstructed
5. The Historicity of Vikramaditya and Salivahana
6. Age of Buddha, Milinda & Amtiyoka and Yuga-Purana
7. Chronology of Ancient Hindu History- Part-I
8. Chronology of Ancient Hindu History- Part-II
(Archaeological evidence misused)
9. Age of Mahabharata War
10. Indian Eras