Friday, July 10, 2009

Waves of Indian emigration in the remote past were responsible for the civilisations of ancient Greece,Egypt,Rome,Africa and America

It is clear from the writings of the Greek historians that long before the time of Alexander's invasion of India in 326 B.C., there were five Yona kingdoms in the North-Western reigon of Bharat. Also long before the Greeks entered Greece and settled down there. there was a Yona(Yavana) people occupying the east, west and south of Greece and enjoying a higher civilisation than all the other peoples of Europe of those times. (i.e. before 1000 B.C.) who could build big cities (Mycenae and Tiryns), iron fortresses surrounded by high walls and towers reaching the skies-- like the Dasyus described in the Rigveda.
"The Illiad is a story of prehistoric Greece, and yet the life it describes, the customs, the objects are not those of the early Greeks at all, but those of a civilisation at a much higher level. We know that when the Greeks first emerged into the light of history (1000 B.C.) they were a crude and simple people. They had neither walled cities, nor beautiful places nor mighty fleets, nor powerful kings. How does it happen. then that this tale, written at that early time about a still earlier time, deals with walls that resist a ten year’s siege, a fleet that numbers a thousand ships, palaces that gleam with the splendour of the sun and the moon? Did Greece go backward? Was it once such a land as Homer describes and was all the glory afterwards swallowed up in darkness? (vide Lost Worlds. Adventures in Archaeology by Anne Terry White, P. 18)
"It proves beyond doubt that long before the birth of Greek history a wonderful People had lived along the western coast of Greece. Perhaps this people had lived there for thousands of years before the Greeks drifted down from the north. But who were these artists who had built Myccnae and Tiryns? What were their relations with the Greeks ?" (Ibid P;i36) ’ “
In fact it can be easily seen from the writings of western antiquarians that waves of Indian emigration in the remote past were responsible for the civilisations of ancient Greece, Egypt, Rome. Africa and America. ‘
“The early civilisation, the early arts. the indubitably early literature of India are equally the civilisation. the arts, and literature of Egypt, and of Greece; for, geographical evidences conjoined to historical facts and religious practices, now prove beyond all dispute that the latter countries are the colonies of the former."' (India in Greece. P. 74)
"We have a right to more than suspect that India, eight thousand years ago, sent a colony of emigrants who "carried their arts and high civilisation into what is now known to us as Egypt. The Egyptians came, according to their records, from a mysterious land (now known to be on the shore of the Indian Ocean;) the sacred Punt, the original home of their gods who followed thence after their people who had abandoned them to the Valley of the Nile, led by Amen, Hor, Hathor, (Brahma, Hari, Rudra). This region was the Egyptian "Land of the Gods." (vide History of Egypt by Prof. Brugsch Bey.)
Rome: "The oldest form is not "Romani" but “Ramnes."(Rama) so dassder name order ‘Rama’" (vide History of Rome by Theodor Mominsen, Part I, Introduction by Edward Agustus Freeman, P. XXI.)
The seventeen kingdoms mentioned earlier(in posting on North-Western India or Uttarapatha) were included in "Uttarapatha" in ancient times, which is now covered by the four states 1. Bactria, 2. Afghanistan. 8. Baluchistan and 4 the North-western Frontier province. Of these North Bahlika.(Bactria) with the province ‘Darada’ is now part of Russian Turkistan. Afganistan was under the rule of Hindu princes till 1026 A,D., when it passed under Mohammad of Ghazni and all the people, most of them of Yavana Kshatriya descent, were converted to Islam.
The earliest members of the human race inhabited the region of Brahma-Varta on the banks of the river Saraswati and called themselves Aryans and their country Aryavarta and spread gradually from there to the east,'The Prachya Desa’, and to the south, 'the Dekshinapatha’ and to the north, Uttarrpatha and to the west ‘the Paschaddesa'. The boundaries of these regions were :-
1. Arya-Vartha.
East------------ Allahabad (Prayaga)
South------------The Vindhya Mountain range,
West-------------The Indus
North------------The Himalayas,
2. Prachya Desa :
East-------------The Burma border
South------------The Bay of Bengal
West-------------The Ganges.
North------------The Himalayas.
3. Dakshinapatha :
East-------------The Bay of Bengal.
South------------The Indian ocean
West-------------The Arabian Sea.
North------------The Vindhyas,
4. Uttarapatha :
East-------------The Indus.
South------------The Arabian Sea.
North------------Sinkiang and Samarkhand (Sagdiana)
5. Paschaddesa :
Comprises Kunti Bhoja, Anarta. Aparamatsya, Surastra, Asmeera.
East-------------Malwa, Karusha etc.
South------------Arabian sea & Vindhyas.
West-------------Arabian sea & Sindhu River.
North------------Sindhu Rashtra
The Bharata-varsha was known as divided into five parts even in very ancient times. "Uttarapatha" was other-wise known as "Mlechcha Khanda".

Thursday, July 9, 2009

North-Western India or "Uttarapatha"

(click on the image to see an enlarged map)
The Mahabharata War occurred in 3138 B.C. By that time India or Bharata Varsha consisted of two parts, Sindhusthan, the region to the east of the Indus and Mlechcha-sthan, to the west of the river. Sindhusthan is known as Bharata-Khanda. This is the distinction embodied in the description ‘Bharata Varshe’ ‘Bharata Khande’ in the mention of the place and the time by all Bharatiyas at the commencement of their ordinary daily as well as extraordinary and occassional ritual observances. Of the Indian continent, known as a whole as Bharata Varsha, the part inhabited by the Bharatiyas who belonged to the traditional cultural fold was known as Bharata-Khanda or "Sindhusthan." The part to the west of the Indus which was inhabited and resorted to by all the Bharatiyas who had disregarded the traditional cultural restrictions and observances and left the parent fold, was known as "Mlechcha-sthan."

The land of the Aryans was known as ‘Sindhusthan’;(or Hindustan, Prakrit form). The land beyond the Indus was called by them ‘Mlechchasthan.’ The boundaries of this Mlechchasthan or "Uttarapatha" were :-
To the east ..........The river Indus.
To the South .........The Arabian Sea.
To the West ..........Iran.
To the North..........Sagdiana (Southern Persia.)
The regions known as Daradasthan, Bactria (Capital Balkh), Aria (Capital Herat) to the north of Modern Afghanistan were all within the borders of the ancient Bharata-varsha.
The part designated "Mlechchasthan" was originally known as “Uttarapatha.” The Aryan race originated in the region called "Brahmavartha" situated between the rivers Saraswathi and Drushadwati. From there, as they grew in numbers in course of time, they spread gradually over the entire region of Aryavartha enclosed between the Himalayas and the Vindhya
After covering the entire Aryavartha, the land to which the Aryans further spread proceeding westward to the North was known as "Uttarapatha" and the land beyond the Vindhyas, to which they spread proceeding Southwards- was known as "Dakshinapatha! The word ‘patha’ in Sanskrit indicates the path or direction and the names themselves indicate the meanings attached to them (Nortlrward direction and Southward direction.) The Kingdoms comprised in Uttarapatha were:-
Ancient Name................Modern Name.
1. Gramaniya................Gedrosia.
2. The Sindhu Valley........Included in the above.

3. Amaraparvatha............}To the north-west of Gedro-
4. Ramatha..................}sia, which together with
5. Hara ....................}Gedrosia now Constitute
6. Huna.....................}modern Beluchisthan.

7. Saka stan................}In the Helmand river valley
8, Suttala..................}now known as Drangiana.

9. Aryanaka.................} Aria Capital Herat.

10. North Bahlika.........} Bactria- Capital Balkh. A
..........................}colony of the Bahlikas, unor-
..........................}thodox Kshatriyas who inha.
..........................}bited the region of the Indus
..........................}and its tributaries and later
..........................}migrated to north and named
..........................}it North Bahlika.

11. Darada................}Dardisthan-Now included in
..........................}Russian Turkisthan.

12. Uttarajyotisha to the....}Forming the central region
South of Sakasthan...........}of modern Afghanisthan to
No. 7........................}the north-east of which up to
.............................}Kashmir were located13,14,
.............................}15,16,the Yavana kingdoms.

13. Divya Kataka .........}Included in modern Afgha-
14. Simhapura.............}nisthan.
15. Uraga or Urasa........}.

16. Abhisara..............}Included in Kashmir.

17. Gandhara..............}Included now partly in Afganisthan and partly in the
..........................}N. W. Frontier Province.

Gandhara was originally and from the beginning an Aryan kingdom. But in course of time, after the Mahabharata War, it became gradually a Mlechcha state. Between the two states of
Simhapura and Uraga, now included in Afghanistan, and through them, the Hindu kush Mountain range runs northward. In this state of Simhapura are to be found the mountain-peak known an "Kohi·Mor" and the town
"Nysa" at its £oot. The region to the northwest of the Kohi-mor peak is called Kafir-i-sthan. In the same Hindukush mountains and in the neighbourhood of‘Nysa’ is another peak known as ‘Meru’. The Yavana legends (of
ancient Greece) describe Dionysius of Greek mythology as having been born in this place 'Nysa’ from the thigh of ‘Zeus’ (Sun-God) i.e.: Suryavamsi Kshatriya and engaged in religious austarities on this ‘Meru’. All ovr this mountain the “Ivy" (sacred to the
Greeks )grew plentifully. It is said the great Alexander when he came upon this mountain in the course of his march for conqueat and found the sacred (to them) 'ivy’ on it,felt immencely delighted (Vide EJ. Rapson·· Cambridge History of India Vol I,pp. 353, 354 ).
E.J.Rapson writes in Vol I. of his Cambridge History of India:“On the lower spurs of three-peaked ‘Kohi·Mor’ dwelt a people who told the Yavanas. or, so the invaders understood them. that they were descendants of the western people, who had come into those parts with their god Dionysius; for Dionysius, the Greeks believed, had gone conquering across Asia, at the head of his revellers. in the old heroic days. The Greeks always experienced a keen joy of recognition, when they could connect foreign things with the figures of their own legends, and they were delighted with the suggestion. The assonance of names lent itself immediately to confirm the theory as easily as it does to confirm
the adventurous speculations of modern Archaeologists. In the legend the name of ‘Nysa` was specially connected with Dionysius. It was the name of his Nurse or of the place where he was born or of his holy hill and the name of this little town in the Hindukush, as it was pronounced to Alexander. had a similar sound.
Again the legend said that Dionysius had been born from the thigh (Meros) of Zeus, and a neighbouring summit the Greeks discovered, was called "Meru". What could be clearer? And when they saw the sacred plants of the god. the Vine and ivy, running wild over the mountain, as they knew them at home.(See Holdich,Gates of India p. 133) no doubt could be left".
Modern travellers have come upon certain fair Kafir tribes in this region whose religious processions with music and dance have a Bacchanalian look. and the Nysaeans discovered by Alexander, they suggest may have been the ancestors of these Kafirs; their processions may have led the Greeks to connect them with Dionysius."
"Hostilities, at any rate, with these interesting kinsmen, could not be thought of, and the Nysaeans were themselves prepared to act in character; three hundred of them on their mountain horses joined the army of the Greek king and followed him to lattle in the plains of the Punjab." (Rapson’s Cambridge History of India, Vol.I pp 353- 354)
Prof. J. B. Bury writes:- "lt was perhaps not far from Jelalabad that the army came to a city which was called "Nysa". The name immediately awakened in the minds of all the Greeks the memory of their god Dionysius. For Mount "Nysa" was the mythical place where he had been nursed by nymphs when he was born from the thigh of Zeus. The mountain was commonly supposed to be in Thrace; but an old hymn placed it "near the streams of Nile," it had no place on the travellers chart. But here was an actual "Nysa;" and close to the town was a hill whose name resembled Meros; the Greek word for "thigh" and whose slopes were covered with the ‘god's own ivy'. Therefore *Nysa,’ they said, was founded by Dionysius, the god had fared eastward to subdue India; and now Alexander was marching on
his tracks. Every where on their further march the Greeks and Macedonians were alert to discover traces of the progress of the bacchic god.” (History of Greece. Chap. XVIII, page 801 by J. B. Bury,D.Litt., L.Ld., F.B.A.. Ed. 1916 )
There is an obvious inconsistency in the above statement of the learned J.B. Bury. If Dionysius, who was born at °Nysa’ and had performed austerities on Mount ‘Meru,’ had proceeded to other lands for invasion, he must have proceeded to the west and not the West. To The east of the Yavana kingdoms there lies the river Indus and beyond the Indus there were then vast kingdoms ruled by powerful kings. Compared with these eastern kingdoms
the extent of even all the Yavana kingdoms put together is inconsiderable. Moreover the Yavanas were dependent on arms for their livelihood, and many of them were employed as
mercenary soldiers in the service of the kings of the east and south of India. The Yavanas crossed the river Indus occasionally for raids but it is not mentioned anywhere in the Sanskrit or any other western Indian literature that they had invaded the kingdoms beyond the river. So the suggestion implied in the statements of Bury as well as Rapson that Dionysius proceeded from the west for invasion to the east does not appear plausible. Dionysius who was born in western Bharat and who performed austerities on Mount ‘meru’ must have been only a Bharatiya Yavana. He might have proceeded to the west on an invading
march up to Greece, established a Yavana colonial kingdom there called ‘Ionia.’ and those people were known as ‘Yaunas or ‘Ionians.' Such an account is supported by the evidence of Indian Puranas as well as the legends and myths of ancient Greece. There were no yavana or Ionian colonies to the east of the river ‘Indus’ in India;.

Saturday, July 4, 2009

Sanskrit is the most ancient and the parent language of all the languages on the earth

Sir william Jones, one of the most intellectual of the European critics of Sanskrit literature, pronounced the Sanskrit language to be "of a wonderful structure, more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either." (Vide Asiatic researches, Vol I, p, 422)
Professor Max-Muller calls Sanskrit "the language of Languages’ and says that "it has been truly said that Sanskrit is, to the science of language, what Mathematics is to Astronomy" (vide Science of language, p.203.)
The distinguished German critic Schlegel says “Justly it is Sanskrit, i.e. perfect, finished. In its structure and grammar it closely resembles the Greek, but it is infinitely more regular, and therefore more simple, though not less rich. It combines the artistic fullness indicative of Greek development, the brevity and nice accuracy of Latin; whilst having a near affinity to the Persian and German roots, it is distinguished by expression as enthusiastic and forcible as theirs." (History of Literature, p. 117)
The learned Dr Pritchard says: "The affinity between the Greek language, and the ‘old Parsee' and Sanskrit is certain and essential. The use of cognate idioms proves the nations who used them to have descended from one stock. That the religion of the Greeks emanated from an eastern source no one will deny. We must therefore suppose the religion as well as the langauge of Greece to have been derived in great part from the East," (Vide Dr. Pritchard's Physical history of Man, vol I, p. 502)
Mr. Pococke says "The Greek language is a derivation from the Sanskrit". (Vide India in Greece p 18)
Sir William Jones further says "I was not a little surprised to find that out of ten words in Du. Perrons' Zind Dictionary Six or seven were pure Sanskrit."(Sir William Jones,Vol i, pp. 82, 83.)
Prof. Heeren says "In point of fact the Zind is derived from the Sanskrit.(Vide Heeren’s Researches Vol., II, p.220)
Mons Dubois says that "Sanskrit is the original source of all the European languages of the present day." (Vide Bible in India).
Prof. Weber says:- " Whi1e the claims of the written records of Indian Literature to a high antiquity are thus indisputably proved by external geographical testimony, the internal evidence in the same direction, which may be gathered from their contents, is no less conclusive ". (Weber’s history of Indian literature p.5.)

Part of answer to Dr.Sirkar - Yavanas

The two questions: The learned Dr. Sirkar (Govt. Epigraphist for India,Ootacamund, South India) asked in a letter in February,1955 after receiving a copy of a booklet "The age of Buddha from Pandit Chelam) :-·
On the basis of your (Puranic) Chronology how do you account for
1. The Yavana king "Milinda" of Sakala mentioned in the "Milinda Panha" who flourished 500 years after the Buddha's Parinirvana?
2. The Yavana Monarch "Amtiyoka" whose dominions bordered on the empire of Asoka, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, according to Maurya inscriptions?

To answer the questions raised. we felt the need for further investigation of allied history and historical research and came upon an essay by the learned Dr. D.C.Sircar himself on ‘The Yavanas’ in Vol.II of "The History and Culture of the Indian People" published by the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. We acknowledge that we found the essay also very useful for our purposes in this connection in furnishing our answers to his questions.
In Vol II of the "History and Culture of the Indian People" Dr. D.C. Sirkar writes about the Yavanas :-
"One of the factors that led to the extinction of the dynasty of the Imperial Mauryas was the advent of the Yavana invaders through the North—western gate of India. Indeed the most intersting feature of the post Maurya period of Indian history is the establishment of foreign supremacy in Uttarapatha, Aparanta Paschaddesa, and the adjoining region of Madhyadesa successively by alien powers, and the Yavanas were the first among them.
The word ‘Yavana’ was used in medieval Indian literature as a synonym of Mlechcha and indicated any foreigner. But as late as the early centuries of the Christian era it meant to an Indian, the Greeks only. The word was derived from the old Persian form ‘Yauna’ signifying originally the Indian Greeks and later, all people of Greek nationality. The Greeks of Ionia in Asia Minor, between the Aegean Sea and Lydia, and the people of North Western India, certainly came into contact with each other as subjects of the Achaemenion emperors of Persia since the time of Darius I (522-488 B.C.) Vide p. 101, Ch. VII of Vol. II of Dr.Sircar's "History and Culture of the Indian people", of the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan series.)"
It is not a fact that foreigners established supremacy in ‘Uttarapatha’ in the post-Mauryan period. It is not correct to say the Sanskrit word "Yavana" is derived from the Persian form ‘Yauna’. 70% of the vocabulary of ancient Persian consists of Sanskrit words. The Persian language is itself a Prakrita(Vernacular dialect) derived from Sanskrit. The original Persians constituted a branch of Bharatiya Kshatriyas. Along with some others they were Kshatriyas excommunicated from the Kshatriya caste of Bharat on account of the non-observance by them of the regulations and rituals prescribed by the Vedas for the Kshatriya caste. The regular Kshatriyas refrained from social and marital
association with the excommunicated branches. One cf such excommunicated branches was known as the ‘Parasaka’ and they settled down in Eastern Persia. The region was named after them and came to be known as ‘Paarasika’. As they had originally belonged to the Aryan race, the country was also known by the more ancient name of Iran. Sanskrit was the parent larguage from which was derived the dialect known as Persian. The contention that the Sanskrit word ‘Yavana' is derived from the Prakrit word 'Youna’ of the derived Persian language is entirely baseless. The Sakas, Yavanas, Barbaras, Bahlikas and others were all branches of Kshatriya caste belonging originally to the Aryan race and the Hindu fold, but known generally as Mlechchas, having been excommunicated for their non observance of the prescribed caste regulations and duties, but they were severally referred to by their separate Kshatriya subsect names whenever necessary.
The Sakas, Yavanas, and others had their own Kingdoms in ‘Uttarapatha’ for thousands of years before the Mahablrarata War (3138 B.C.). Thev were Hindus (excommunicated) and not at all foreigners.
The Mauryas were not emperors, sovereigns over an empire. from the time of Chandragupta Maurya. Chandragupta Maurya was able to establish himself on the throne of the Magadha kingdom, only with the help of the famous Chanakya. His son Bindusara also was only the king of Megadha and not an emperor. In his time Magadha extended as far as 'Taxila’ in the west. His son Asoka appears to have extended his dominion by conquest and got recognised as an emperor. Even for his empire the western boundary was only at Takshasila and there were the Yavana kingdoms and Gandhara to the north west and west of it, Kambhoja and Kashmir to the north. His descendents were not so formidable and so in a few generations after him the empire dwindled gradually and came to be confined once again to the Magadha kingdom only. In 1218 B.C. Pushya-mitra-Sunga murdered the last king of Magadha of the Maurya dynasty, himself became king of Magadha, conquered and brought under his suzerainty the neighbouring kingdoms and performed the Aswamedha to establish his claim to the status of an emperor. The Maurya empire was disrupted on account of the weakness of the successors of Asoka which led to the independence of the feudatory kings and not on account of the invasions of foreign ‘Yavanas.’ Yavana kings were perhaps crossing the frontiers (river Indus) with small armies and indulging in marauding activities in the villages and towns across the border. But they were returning to their countries at the approach of the armies of Magadha. These Yavanas across the border of the Maurya empire were of Bharatiya Kshatriya descent and were neither Greeks nor foreigners. There were no Greeks at that time. It is wrong to identify the word ‘Yavana’ with the 'Greek.’ The ancient Yavana kingdoms now comprise modern Afghanistan. The Yavanas and the Yavana kingdoms were in the northwestern region of Bharat from times immemorial and not of foreign advent. There was only one (Bharatiya)Yavana invasion in the time of the Maurya emperors and then it was repelled. lt is erroneous to contend that the Maurya empire was disrupted by the Yavana invasions. It is not a fact. There is no historical evidence whatsoever in support of such a contention.
Sir william Jones, one of the most intellectual of the European critics of Sanskrit literature, pronounced the Sanskrit language to be ‘of a wonderful structure, more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either. (Vide Asiatic researches, Vol I, p, 422)
While thus innumerable reputed scholars unanimously declare that Sanskrit is the most ancient and the parent language of all the languages on the earth, from which all the other languages ere derived, and in particular Zind, the ancient Persian language, is 70% Sanskrit and derived from Sanscrit it is surpriseing that Dr. Sirkar should suggest that the Sanskrit word "Yavana" is derived from the ancient persian word 'Yauna'. The word ‘Yavana' is frequently in use in Sanskrit literature, from times immemorial. To say that it has recently been imported into the Sanskrit language, argues little acquaintance with Sanskrit language and literature. There is a lot of information and innumerable references in Sanskrit litereture to the Yavanas and other Bharatiya Kshatriya races which subsequently spread all over the world.

Wednesday, July 1, 2009

The correct date of Buddha’s death.(All Astronomical proof.)

27-3-1807 B.C.(Tuesday Vaishakha Purnima)

By V. Thiruvenkatacharya, M,A., L.T., Head of the Department of Mathematics,Government Arts college; Rajahmundry & Anantapur.

I propose to fix the date of Buddha's death on purely astronomical grounds, and I shall give historical evidence which I have gathered in support of that date.

We find there is no definiteness in the dates adopted at present by various people about the date of Buddha’s death except that it occurred during the reign of Ajatasatru.

Swamikannu Pillai arrived at 1-4-478 B.C., as the date of Buddha’s death purely in astronomical grounds (vide Indian Ephemerics, page 472.) taking into consideration the dates of events in the life of Buddha as given by Bigandet's Life of Gaudama. But this date is not consonance with the other dates adopted by others. Again it should be remembered that astronomical dates are cyclical and should not be the sole guiding factor in fixing the date of any event unless supported by other evidences. It is my desire to take all the factors in my possession into consideration to fix the date of Buddha’s death leaving it to scholars to pronounce the final verdict on the whole work.

Arya Manju Sri Mulakalpa states that Ajatasatru was the ruler of Magadha when Buddha passed away.

After careful scrutiny and selection from the Puranas and after comparing these dates with the tests given in the Puranas under Saptarshi Saka or Era, the following is the list of regnal periods adopted by me from the beginning of Kaliyuga.

S.No. Dynasties No of Kings From-To B.C. Period of years
1 Barhadraha Dynasty 22 3139-2133 1006
2 Pradyota 5 2133-1995 138
3 Saisunaga 10 1995-1635 360
4 Nanda 9 1635-1535 100
5 Maurya 12 1535-1219 316
6 Sunga 10 1219- 919 300
7 Kanva 4 919 -834 85
8 Andhra 33 834 -328 506
9 Gupta 8 328 - 83 245

I do not lay claim to any originality in giving these data. I have adopted this data from "The Age of the Mahabharata War", by N. Jagantatha Rao, and History of Classical Literature by Dr. M. Krishnamacharya. But what I claim is that I have given what I consider to be, unequivocal astronomical proofs about the correctness of these data and the proofs are given elsewhere in my article on the Andhra Saka.

It is to be remembered that 3139 B.C. is the date of the Mahabharata war, as the date of the war according to ithihasas is 37 years before the beginning of Kaliyuga commenced astronomically on 18-2-3102 B.C.

Since Lord Buddha was contemporary of Ajatasatru, a king of the Saisunaga dynasty, the regnal periods of individual kings of the Saisunaga dynasty are appended herewith:-

1 Sisunaga 40 1995-1955 B.C.
2 Kakavarna 36 1955-1919
3 Kshemadharma 26 1919-1893
4 Kshetraujasa 40 1893-1853
5 Vidhieara or Binhisara 38 1853-1815
6 Ajatasatru 27 1815-1788
7 Darbhaka 35 1788-1753
8 Udayana 33 1753-1720
9 Nandivardhana 42 1720-1678
10 Mahanandi 43 1678-1635

Total 360

So according to historical records the death of Buddha must have occurred between 1815 B.C., to 1788 B.C., that is during the rule of Ajatasatru.

The date of Buddha's death:- In the article ‘True and exact day of Buddha’s death," Swamikannu Pillai (Vide Indian Ephemeris, page 472) has quoted eight dates in the life of Buddha as collected by Bishop Bigandet in his "LIFE OF GAUDAMA” and by purely astronomical calculations shows that 1-4-478 B.C. is the date of Buddha’s death which satisfies all the data mentioned therein. But it is stated that Buddha died in the eighth year of the reign of king Ajatasatru and no attempt has so far been made to verify whether 478 B.C. is the eighth year of King Ajatasatru's rule. So I searched of the required year, satisfying all the dates given by Bigandet from 1815 B.C. to 1788 B. C., and to my wonder I noted that 1807 B.C. is the only year to be taken as the date of death of Buddha satisfying all the conditions. I give below all the dates corresponding to Christian Era. And I have used Swamikannu Pillai’s ephemeris in the calculations.

i. Kaudza Era given up on Saturday,1st of the month of Tabsong (Phalguna). Phalguna new moon ends at night on Friday 29th Jaruary 1955 B.C, As there is a convention to avoid a day with amavasya, Kaudza Era must have been given up on Saturday 30th January, 1955 B. C.

ii. Eetzana Era — Sunday, first of the waxing moon in Tagu(Chaitra). Chaitra new moon ends at 47 gh, 24 on Saturday 27-2-1955 B.C. So the era begins on Sunday. 28-2-1955_54 B.C., reckoned as one year elapsed.

iii. Birth of Buddha~ year 68, Vaisakha Su. 15, Visakha, Friday 31-3-1886 is a Friday; full moon ends at 59 gh. 24 vaisakha ends at 24 gh.

iv. Buddha leaves Kapilavastu year 96, Sunday, Ashadha full moon; Uttarashadha; enters solitude on Monday. 29-5-1859 B.C. is a Sunday with full moon ending at 16 gh. 48 on the next day, Monday. Uttarashadha begins at 50 ghats on 29-5-1859 with concurrent full moon.

V. Attainment of perfect wisdom. Year 103, Vaisakha full moon, Visakha Nakshatram, Wednesday, a little before day break. 3-4-1851 B. C, is a Wednesday with Visakha Nakshtram ending at 1 gh. 8 and pournami ending at 11 ghati before sunrise.

vi. Death of Buddha's father, Suddhodana, year 107 full moon of Sravana (Waksong) at sunrise on Saturday. 25-6·1848 Pournami begins at 27 ghatis. This is no doubt a discrepancy and Swamikannu Pillai has also had a similar difficulty with his date. Sunday begins after sunrise on 26-6-1848 and just before sunrise it is Saturday with full moon satisfying the condition.

vii. Death of Buddha--year 148; Vaisakha full moon Nakshatram Visakha. Tuesday a little before day break. 27·3-1807 B.C. is a full moon (Tuesday) ending at 37 gh. 12 v. gh.
Vaisakha begins at 55 gh. 12 v. gh. on 26-3-18Q7 and ends at 1 gh. 12 v. gh. on 28-3-1807.

viii. A new religious Era commences in the year of Buddha’s death 148, on Monday, first of the month of Tabsong(Phalguna) the week day was possibly a Sunday which appeers in another version recorded by Bigandet. 12-1-1807 B.C., is Saturday Phalguna full moon, ending at 7 ghatis. So 13·1-18Q7 B.C., is a Sunday, the epoch of the new religious era.

CONCLUSION :- It has been proved on astronomical grounds that 27-3-1807 B.C., is the true end correct date of death of Buddha. It falls in the eighth year of the reign of king Ajatasetru. This date explains the possibility of the existence of Buddhism in the second milinnium B.C., as mentioned in Kalhana’s Rajatarangini and NepalVamsavali.

All the dates given in Bishop Bigandet's "LIFE OF GAUDAMA" in the Kaudza and Eetzana Eras have been verified with the dates in Christien Era. The dates tally accurately with 27-3-1807 B.C., as the date of Nirvana of Lord Buddha.

Since preparing the article Dr. D.S.Triveda has invited my attention to his proof that the Date of Lord Buddha is 1793 B.C. (Vide Bharatiya Vidya, Bombay, Vol. VIII pages 220-38)

Independent Astrological verification arrives at same date for Buddha

Pandit Kota Venkata Chelam wrote:
As researches progress this date (1887-1807 B. C.) of Buddha is bound to be accepted by scholars, if the scholars have not so far arrived at this date, it was because there was a common notion among them that the last word on the subject had been already said. If they had realised that the question was open for further investigation atleast some of them would certainly pursue enquiry in this direction and arrived at the date fixed by me.
It is highly refreshing to note that there is at least one scholar who could not superstitiously believe the existing theory about Buddha's date, but thought it worthwhile to
investigate into the question with an open mind. I refer to Sri V.Thiruvenkatachariyar M.A., L.T., (Formerly Head of Department of Mathematics, Govt. Arts College., Rajahmundry.) who arrived at the same date as myself (1807 B. C.) as the year of Buddha’s death and has fixed the actual day of the week and the month also. (Tuesday, Vaishakha Purnima). His way of approach to the subject was astronomical. The fact that the same date 1807 B. C. was arrived at by two different ways of approach may induce the scholars to pause and try to revise the existing fictitious date of Buddha Niryana. (483 B. C.).
Having arrived at the same date independently we had occasion to compare notes at a stage when the present volume(1) was completely printed and was awaiting binding. I thought it worthwhile to incorporate the learned professor’s thesis in this volume. He has kindly permitted this and has sent a typed copy of his thesis, (on 18-1-55) which is herein incorporated. 1 am thankful to the professor for thus helping the cause of the true historical research which both of us have at heart.
(1) Age of Buddha,Milinda & Amtiyoka and Yuga-Purana by Pandit Kota Venkata Chelam (1956)